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Bioécologie

Articles avec #chercheurs - projets de recherche...

The Long Term Ecological Research Network

18 Juillet 2017,

Publié par Bioécologie

The Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network was created by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 1980 to conduct research on ecological issues that can last decades and span huge geographical areas.

The largest and longest-lived ecological network in the United States, LTER provides the scientific expertise, research platforms, and long-term datasets necessary to document and analyze environmental change.

The Long Term Ecological Research Network

WAMWiki: the wild animal models wiki

5 Juillet 2017,

Publié par Bioécologie

WAMwiki is an on-line resource containing information and resources for anyone interested in learning more about and applying quantitative genetic methods - but especially for those interested in using quantitative genetics in natural populations.

Recent discussions at the Wild Animal Model BienniAl Meeting (WAMBAM 3) and work on a guide to the animal model for ecologists encouraged us to set up this wiki to allow the community of researchers working on wild populations to share their experience and tips for data analysis. We chose to develop a wiki as we would like the site to act as an easy and flexible way to share knowledge.

WAMWiki: the wild animal models wiki

Richard Lenski: Experimental Evolution

3 Février 2017,

Publié par Bioécologie

The main focus of my lab is on experimental evolution. Evolution is usually investigated using the comparative method or by studying fossils. Our approach is to watch evolution as it happens, in the context of experiments that are replicated and performed under controlled conditions. The idea of watching evolution in action is not new. In fact, Charles Darwin, in the first edition of On the Origin of Species (1859, p. 187), said "In looking for the gradations by which an organ in any species has been perfected, we ought to look exclusively to its lineal ancestors ; but this is scarcely ever possible, and we are forced in each case to look to species of the same group, that is to the collateral descendants from the same original parent-form."

In order to study evolution as it happens requires either a time machine (which we don't have) or else organisms that replicate, mutate, and evolve very fast, so that we can detect changes on a reasonable time scale. In our research, we are now performing experiments with two different fast-evolving systems:

In both systems, we are investigating the dynamics of evolution, including genomic as well as phenotypic changes. We aim to integrate our understanding of these genomic and phenotypic changes by identifying and manipulating the genetic and ecological determinants of organismal performance and fitness. The approaches we use to draw these connections span a wide range, from finding specific mutations of interest to analyzing arrays that summarize the relationship between the entire genome and all the phenotypes that it encodes. By using two very different systems, we seek commonalities that may indicate more general features of evolving systems. Of equal interest, major differences between these systems may lead us to further experiments that explore the reasons for particular outcomes.

 

More information here

Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative

17 Juin 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

The Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative was launched in September 2011 and is open to all those interested in developing a coherent platform for promoting the translation of expert knowledge on soil biodiversity into environmental policy and sustainable land management for the protection and enhancement of ecosystem services.

Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative

Publié depuis Overblog et Facebook

3 Mai 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

Las superbacterias que viven en Chernóbil

21 Avril 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

Un equipo científico halla unos microbios resistentes a la radioactividad, lo que puede tener implicaciones en la lucha contra el cáncer

Kristin Suleng (Valencia, 24 mars 2016):

Aunque su nombre recuerda a una de las mayores catástrofes medioambientales de la historia, Chernóbil no es sinónimo de ausencia absoluta de vida. En el escenario inhóspito que dejó el accidente nuclear hay poco rastro de presencia humana, pero algunas especies de vegetales, insectos y aves son capaces de resistir la radiactividad 30 años después del desastre. ¿El hecho de vivir en ambientes radiactivos podría generar una resistencia a la radiactividad? Esa es la pregunta fundamental que plantea un reciente estudio publicado en la revista Scientific Reports, el primero en confirmar la resistencia de ciertas bacterias a dosis intermedias de radiactividad, fruto de un trabajo liderado por el biólogo español Mario Xavier Ruiz-González.

Las bacterias pueden sobrevivir en el lugar más insospechado del planeta. También en los entornos radiactivos. Esa es la hipótesis inicial de esta investigación pionera que considera la radiactividad como una condición de estrés, al igual que las temperaturas extremas, a las que se adaptan los animales y las plantas como motor de los procesos evolutivos.

Aunque descubrir los efectos negativos de la radiactividad sobre los microorganismos no es una novedad, en cambio, lo es demostrar la adaptación de las bacterias a ambientes radiactivos. Investigaciones previas han caracterizado la vida en Chernóbil a partir de la detección de mutaciones y aberraciones en plantas, insectos, hongos y bacterias, o de la evaluación del impacto de la radiactividad sobre la biodiversidad. Pero el estudio de este investigador valenciano es el primero en analizar la resistencia de las bacterias tras el desastre nuclear.

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Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant's reactor 4

Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant's reactor 4

Meet the Bird Brainiacs: American Crow

22 Mars 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

PET scan of a crow's brain: Courtesy of Robert Miyaoka/Dept. of Radiology/University of Washington

PET scan of a crow's brain: Courtesy of Robert Miyaoka/Dept. of Radiology/University of Washington

Corvid expert John Marzluff scans crows’ brains to crack the mystery of what makes these smart birds so successful.

Editor's Note: Members of the crow family, known as the corvids, are among the smartest birds in the world. Some are capable of using tools, playing tricks, teaching each other new things, even holding “funerals.” And yet there’s still much we don’t know about these fascinating, sometimes confounding creatures. What’s going on inside the mind of a corvid? Three leading scientists are finding answers.

The crows in your neighborhood know your block better than you do. They know the garbage truck routes. They know which kids drop animal crackers and which ones throw rocks. They know the pet dogs, and they might even play with the friendly ones. If you feed them, they probably not only recognize you but your car as well, and they might just leave you trinkets in return. These birds live their lives intertwined with ours, carefully observing us even as most of us barely take note of them. That’s how they survive, and they’re good at it: In recent decades the American Crow has taken over our suburbs, and even moved into the hearts of our big cities. As we’ve reshaped the landscape, we’ve created an ideal environment for an animal that is canny and perceptive enough to exploit our riches.

Read more here

The “Trimates,” The Founding Mothers of Primatology

8 Mars 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

Birute Galdikas (orangutans), Jane Goodall (chimpanzees) and Dian Fossey (gorillas in particular mountain gorillas) (Read more here)

The Jane Goodall Institute, the Karisoke Research Center (founded by Fossey), and the Orangutan Foundation International (founded by Galdikas) are part of the remarkable legacy of these tireless women, whose work in understanding and protecting humanity’s closest living relatives will never be finished.

The “Trimates,” The Founding Mothers of Primatology