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Report: The Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission

11 Mars 2017,

Publié par Bioécologie

National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission is the commission to investigate the background and cause of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

The Fukushima nuclear accident "cannot be regarded as a natural disaster," the NAIIC panel's chairman, Tokyo University professor emeritus Kiyoshi Kurosawa, wrote in the inquiry report. "It was a profoundly man-made disaster -- that could and should have been foreseen and prevented. And its effects could have been mitigated by a more effective human response."

Read the report here

Fukushima prefecture, Japan, 2012
Fukushima prefecture, Japan, 2012Fukushima prefecture, Japan, 2012

Fukushima prefecture, Japan, 2012

Writing Manuscripts: The Alternative ‘Guide to Authors’

4 Mars 2017,

Publié par Bioécologie

Post provided by EMMA SAYER

 

“If the reviewer doesn’t get it, you haven’t explained it clearly enough!” This is one quote from my PhD supervisor that I haven’t forgotten. Getting research funded and published depends to a very large extent on our ability to get the point across. Although scientific texts appear to differ wildly from other forms of writing, a good research paper actually follows the same basic principles of effective communication as a newspaper article or advertising text.

There are some fairly simple guidelines on presenting and structuring written information to get the point across and highlight the key messages that are very useful for manuscripts, thesis chapters, proposals, basically any kind of academic writing. At Functional Ecology, we’ve collected tips and tricks from various sources to help authors effectively communicate their research and ideas. Here are our key points:

1) Know Your Audience

A research paper is about communicating your research in a way that makes sense to others. © Vinch

A research paper is about communicating your research in a way that makes sense to others. © Vinch

The central principle for any type of communication is: know your audience. A research paper isn’t just about presenting information – it’s about communicating your research to others. When you start preparing a manuscript, you need to think about who will read it. In the first instance, this is probably a busy editor or reviewer, so you should make sure that you get your key messages across without making your readers work too hard. Good science writing isn’t about using clever-sounding words and sentences, it’s about getting the point across in such a way that readers can understand the research and reach the right conclusion (i.e. the one you want them to reach).

There are some general principles of how to get a message across and to make it stick in people’s minds. These can be adapted to science writing and remembered with the acronym SUCCES:

  • Simple — keep it simple by finding the main message and sticking to it
  • Unexpected — use the unexpected to grab the reader’s attention (eg. a knowledge gap, unforeseen consequences, an unusual feedback…)
  • Concrete — make the central concept easily grasped and remembered
  • Credible —support your interpretation and discussion with evidence
  • Emotional —stimulate interest and highlight the relevance of the study to make people care about the research
  • Story — people enjoy and remember stories, so a good manuscript is a narrative about your research, with a logical train of thought

Although you’re constrained by scientific convention and the fixed format of most journals, you can still tell a simple, concrete and credible ‘story’ (non-fiction) about your research. You can use elements of the unexpected to show the novelty of the research and help the reader remember your paper by tapping into emotion (eg. curiosity, amazement).

2) A Different Take on Manuscript Structure

The title gets people reading the paper, so it should be brief and clear, summarising the main finding of the paper (think of a newspaper or magazine headline). It’s wise to avoid questions, convoluted sentences and too much detail. The title should be simple and concrete, and it can also incorporate something unexpected. The most important part of the title should come first because the second half may not appear in a list of search results. (See also Fox & Burns 2015)

Click here to read the rest

Interspecies sexual behaviour between a male Japanese macaque and female sika deer

10 Janvier 2017,

Publié par Bioécologie

Pelé, M., Bonnefoy, A., Masaki, S., Sueur, C. et al. (2016). Interspecies sexual behaviour between a male Japanese macaque and female Sika deer, Primates

Sexual mount of a Japanese macaque male on two different deer. a–c Sequence of a sexual mount on a first deer that accepted being ridden. d The macaque tried to mount a second deer, but the latter clearly did not accept the mountAbstract

Interspecies sexual behaviour or ‘reproductive interference’ has been reported across a wide range of animal taxa. However, most of these occurrences were observed in phylogenetically close species and were mainly discussed in terms of their effect on fitness, hybridization and species survival. The few cases of heterospecific mating in distant species occurred between animals that were bred and maintained in captivity. Only one scientific study has reported this phenomenon, describing sexual harassment of king penguins by an Antarctic fur seal. This is the first article to report mating behaviour between a male Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) and female sika deer (Cervus nippon yakushimae) on Yakushima Island, Japan. Although Japanese macaques are known to ride deer, this individual showed clearly sexual behaviour towards several female deer, some of which tried to escape whilst others accepted the mount. This male seems to belong to a group of peripheral males. Although this phenomenon may be explained as copulation learning, this is highly unlikely. The most realistic hypothesis would be that of mate deprivation, which states that males with limited access to females are more likely to display this behaviour. Whatever the cause for this event may be, the observation of highly unusual animal behaviour may be a key to understanding the evolution of heterospecific mating behaviour in the animal kingdom.

Read the publication here

Dispelling the nice or naughty myth: retrospective observational study of Santa Claus

24 Décembre 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

Abstract

Objective To determine which factors influence whether Santa Claus will visit children in hospital on Christmas Day.

Design Retrospective observational study.

Setting Paediatric wards in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.

Participants 186 members of staff who worked on the paediatric wards (n=186) during Christmas 2015.

Main outcome measures Presence or absence of Santa Claus on the paediatric ward during Christmas 2015. This was correlated with rates of absenteeism from primary school, conviction rates in young people (aged 10-17 years), distance from hospital to North Pole (closest city or town to the hospital in kilometres, as the reindeer flies), and contextual socioeconomic deprivation (index of multiple deprivation).

Results Santa Claus visited most of the paediatric wards in all four countries: 89% in England, 100% in Northern Ireland, 93% in Scotland, and 92% in Wales. The odds of him not visiting, however, were significantly higher for paediatric wards in areas of higher socioeconomic deprivation in England (odds ratio 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.71) in England, 1.23 (1.00 to 1.54) in the UK). In contrast, there was no correlation with school absenteeism, conviction rates, or distance to the North Pole.

Conclusion The results of this study dispel the traditional belief that Santa Claus rewards children based on how nice or naughty they have been in the previous year. Santa Claus is less likely to visit children in hospitals in the most deprived areas. Potential solutions include a review of Santa’s contract or employment of local Santas in poorly represented regions.

Read more here

RIPES : Revue Internationale de Pédagogie de l'Enseignement Supérieur

9 Décembre 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

RIPES est la revue officielle de l’Association internationale de pédagogie universitaire. D’orientation pluridisciplinaire, elle a pour vocation d’étudier les problématiques touchant à l’enseignement supérieur (ou post secondaire) et à ses pratiques pédagogiques. Elle vise à susciter et alimenter des débats concernant des enjeux reliés à l’éducation supérieure ainsi qu’à faire connaître des travaux de recherche, des cadres de référence et des pratiques susceptibles d’améliorer la compréhension et la qualité des dispositifs, des programmes et des stratégies de formation dans l’enseignement supérieur.

Accéder à la page internet de RIPES

RIPES : Revue Internationale de Pédagogie de l'Enseignement Supérieur

TERMIUM Plus®

6 Décembre 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

TERMIUM Plus®, une des plus grandes banques de données terminologiques et linguistiques dans le monde, vous donne accès à des millions de termes en anglais, français, espagnol et portugais. Vous pouvez trouver des termes, des abréviations, des définitions et des exemples d’utilisation dans un large éventail de domaines spécialisés. La banque de données est un outil essentiel pour décoder les acronymes, vérifier un titre officiel, trouver un équivalent dans une autre langue et bien plus encore.

TERMIUM Plus®

Limnology & Oceanography:The Top 60 Papers from the First 60 Years of L&O

3 Novembre 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

With this first ever virtual issue of Limnology & Oceanography, we celebrate 60 years of the journal by bringing together 60 of the most cited papers published in the journal.  After leading with the announcement for L&O in the first issue in 1956 by the ASLO-President Alfred Redfield, the virtual issue presents the top 5 most cited papers from the 1950s, then the top 10 most cited papers for each subsequent decade through 2009, and finally the top 5 most cited papers since 2010.  We chose this approach rather than simply publishing the top 60 papers across the entire time of the journal so as to best reflect what the community of limnologists and oceanographers have found most interesting and valuable over time.  Within each decade, the papers are listed in their order of citation, with the most cited presented first. These top 60 papers are truly the choice of the community as reflected by the extent of citation.  This is an extraordinary collection that any practitioner or student of aquatic sciences will want to read.  

Read Top 60 Papers from the First 60 Years of L&O Virtual Issue Here

Sic-Hub : des millions de publications scientifiques en accès libre

2 Novembre 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

Le site pirate Sci-Hub propose en téléchargement gratuit "47 millions de publications de chercheurs".

Pour y accéder, cliquez sur ce lien : https://sci-hub.io. Mais régulièrement le site se fait bloquer. Essayez ces autres adresses : https://sci-hub.bz ou https://sci-hub.cc ou http://80.82.78.170)

Si rien de fonctionne, essayez de passer par Library Genesis

Lancé en 2011 par Alexandra Elbakyan, une chercheuse kazakhe en neurosciences, Sci-Hub donne accès à plus de 47 millions d’articles de recherche, des contenus d’ordinaire payants, publiés par de grands éditeurs de revues scientifiques.

Alexandra Elbakyan : « Quand j’étais étudiante au kazakhstan, je n’avais accès à aucun article de recherche ». J’en avais besoin pour mon projet de recherche. Payer 32 dollars [par article] est insensé quand vous avez besoin de parcourir ou de lire des dizaines ou des centaines d’articles pour faire vos recherches. »

Sic-Hub : des millions de publications scientifiques en accès libre

France : libre accès aux articles scientifiques !

21 Octobre 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

La loi pour une République numérique promulguée le 8 octobre 2016 comporte un article dédié au libre accès aux articles scientifiques, l’article 30.

En bref, tous les articles scientifiques issus de la recherche publique peuvent désormais être déposés dans HAL :

  • dans leur version manuscrit accepté,

  • avec un embargo maximum de 6 mois,

quelle que soit la politique de libre accès de l’éditeur.

Le manuscrit accepté correspond au manuscrit auteur de la version définitive de l’article, sans la mise en forme typographique de l’éditeur ni les mentions de copyright.

Extrait de l’article 30 de la loi pour une République numérique, dont l’intégralité est disponible sur Legifrance :

« Lorsqu'un écrit scientifique issu d'une activité de recherche financée au moins pour moitié par des dotations de l'Etat, des collectivités territoriales ou des établissements publics, par des subventions d'agences de financement nationales ou par des fonds de l'Union européenne est publié dans un périodique paraissant au moins une fois par an, son auteur dispose, même après avoir accordé des droits exclusifs à un éditeur, du droit de mettre à disposition gratuitement dans un format ouvert, par voie numérique, sous réserve de l'accord des éventuels coauteurs, la version finale de son manuscrit acceptée pour publication, dès lors que l'éditeur met lui-même celle-ci gratuitement à disposition par voie numérique ou, à défaut, à l'expiration d'un délai courant à compter de la date de la première publication. Ce délai est au maximum de six mois pour une publication dans le domaine des sciences, de la technique et de la médecine et de douze mois dans celui des sciences humaines et sociales. »

Un autre article de cette loi concerne également le libre accès, l’article 38 sur la fouille de textes et de données. Il sera effectif lorsque les décrets d’application auront été publiés.

Source : Bibliothèque universitaire Pierre et Marie Curie (France)

France : libre accès aux articles scientifiques !