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Bioécologie

Articles avec #materiels et methodes

Writing Manuscripts: The Alternative ‘Guide to Authors’

4 Mars 2017,

Publié par Bioécologie

Post provided by EMMA SAYER

 

“If the reviewer doesn’t get it, you haven’t explained it clearly enough!” This is one quote from my PhD supervisor that I haven’t forgotten. Getting research funded and published depends to a very large extent on our ability to get the point across. Although scientific texts appear to differ wildly from other forms of writing, a good research paper actually follows the same basic principles of effective communication as a newspaper article or advertising text.

There are some fairly simple guidelines on presenting and structuring written information to get the point across and highlight the key messages that are very useful for manuscripts, thesis chapters, proposals, basically any kind of academic writing. At Functional Ecology, we’ve collected tips and tricks from various sources to help authors effectively communicate their research and ideas. Here are our key points:

1) Know Your Audience

A research paper is about communicating your research in a way that makes sense to others. © Vinch

A research paper is about communicating your research in a way that makes sense to others. © Vinch

The central principle for any type of communication is: know your audience. A research paper isn’t just about presenting information – it’s about communicating your research to others. When you start preparing a manuscript, you need to think about who will read it. In the first instance, this is probably a busy editor or reviewer, so you should make sure that you get your key messages across without making your readers work too hard. Good science writing isn’t about using clever-sounding words and sentences, it’s about getting the point across in such a way that readers can understand the research and reach the right conclusion (i.e. the one you want them to reach).

There are some general principles of how to get a message across and to make it stick in people’s minds. These can be adapted to science writing and remembered with the acronym SUCCES:

  • Simple — keep it simple by finding the main message and sticking to it
  • Unexpected — use the unexpected to grab the reader’s attention (eg. a knowledge gap, unforeseen consequences, an unusual feedback…)
  • Concrete — make the central concept easily grasped and remembered
  • Credible —support your interpretation and discussion with evidence
  • Emotional —stimulate interest and highlight the relevance of the study to make people care about the research
  • Story — people enjoy and remember stories, so a good manuscript is a narrative about your research, with a logical train of thought

Although you’re constrained by scientific convention and the fixed format of most journals, you can still tell a simple, concrete and credible ‘story’ (non-fiction) about your research. You can use elements of the unexpected to show the novelty of the research and help the reader remember your paper by tapping into emotion (eg. curiosity, amazement).

2) A Different Take on Manuscript Structure

The title gets people reading the paper, so it should be brief and clear, summarising the main finding of the paper (think of a newspaper or magazine headline). It’s wise to avoid questions, convoluted sentences and too much detail. The title should be simple and concrete, and it can also incorporate something unexpected. The most important part of the title should come first because the second half may not appear in a list of search results. (See also Fox & Burns 2015)

Click here to read the rest

ZEN: Eco-evolutionary Software

13 Février 2017,

Publié par Bioécologie

kisdi

Figure 1
Deployment of polymorphism in a population subjected to asymmetric competition
(ZEN simulation, model from Kisdi & Geritz 2001).
The distribution of phenotypes is shown along evolutionary time in ordinates.
 

Ecology

Ecological models with an evolutionary component allow to study several biological phenomena: host-pathogens interactions, coevolution of plants and pollinisators, mimicry, development of the immune system, evolution of cooperation, evolution of life history traits, and more generally biodiversity and speciation.

What is simulated by ZEN ? The evolution of populations under the mutation-selection process 

ZEN uses an individual-based (in fact ‘phenotype-based’) approach with 3 components:

  • Stochastic equations in discrete time describing the dynamics of finite populations
  • Adaptive traits and their mutations (mutation rates and distributions)
  •  Ecological interactions between phenotypes

During the ZEN simulation, mutant phenotypes created by the triggering of mutations interact with resident phenotypes. They persist or go extinct, possibly leading to evolutionary branching and polymorphism (Figs. 1, 2).

How does ZEN work ?

Models are described in a text file using a reduced declaration language, and studied by means of a simple interface with convenient graphics. The ZEN kernel is a symbolic evaluator handling ‘polymorphic’ variables.

More information here

The Geant4-DNA project

1 Février 2017,

Publié par Bioécologie

The Geant4 general purpose particle-matter Monte Carlo simulation toolkit is being extended with processes for the modeling of early biological damage induced by ionising radiation at the DNA scale. Such developments are on-going in the framework of the Geant4-DNA project, originally initiated by the European Space Agency/ESTEC. They are fully included in Geant4.

microbeam2

Microbeam irradiation of a keratinocyte (HaCaT) with alpha particles (see the « microbeam » Geant4 advanced example) - courtesy of L. Garnier (CNRS) -

TERMIUM Plus®

6 Décembre 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

TERMIUM Plus®, une des plus grandes banques de données terminologiques et linguistiques dans le monde, vous donne accès à des millions de termes en anglais, français, espagnol et portugais. Vous pouvez trouver des termes, des abréviations, des définitions et des exemples d’utilisation dans un large éventail de domaines spécialisés. La banque de données est un outil essentiel pour décoder les acronymes, vérifier un titre officiel, trouver un équivalent dans une autre langue et bien plus encore.

TERMIUM Plus®

FishBase: A Global Information System on Fishes

24 Octobre 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

FishBase is a relational database with information to cater to different professionals such as research scientists, fisheries managers, zoologists and many more.  FishBase on the web contains practically all fish species known to science.

FishBase was developed at the WorldFish Center in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ( FAO) and many other partners, and with support from the European Commission ( EC). Since 2001 FishBase is supported by a consortium of nine research institutions

FishBase: A Global Information System on Fishes

Le Centre d’étude de la forêt (CEF) : livres, articles, logiciels, ou autres ressources web

25 Juillet 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

Vous êtes en quête de références dans un domaine particulier de l'information spatiale, de la statistique, ou d'un autre domaine associé à l'écologie forestière et à l'expertise des professionnels du recherche du CEF? CEF-Référence peut vous aider! Vous y trouverez l'information organisée en 4 sections: livres, articles, logiciels, ou autres ressources web. La plupart des items sont décrits et commentés par un professionel du CEF.

Le Centre d’étude de la forêt (CEF) regroupe l’expertise scientifique de 60 chercheurs provenant de 11 universités québécoises (Concordia, McGill, UQAC, UQAM, UQAT, UQO, UQAR, Université de Montréal, Université de Sherbrooke, Université Laval et TELUQ). Ces chercheurs œuvrent dans les domaines de la biologie, de l’écologie et de l’aménagement forestier. Au Québec, le Centre d’étude de la forêt est unique, car c’est le seul regroupement à avoir pour mission centrale la formation avancée et la recherche sur la forêt.

Le Centre d’étude de la forêt compte aussi plus de 40 chercheurs associés provenant d’organisations québécoises, canadiennes et étrangères. Enfin, plus de 370 étudiants au doctorat et à la maîtrise y évoluent. Il s'agit du plus grand centre dans le domaine de l'écologie forestière au Canada et l'un des plus importants au monde.

Le Centre d’étude de la forêt (CEF) : livres, articles, logiciels, ou autres ressources web

TERMIUM : la banque de données terminologiques et linguistiques du gouvernement du Canada.

21 Juillet 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

TERMIUM Plus®, une des plus grandes banques de données terminologiques et linguistiques dans le monde, vous donne accès à des millions de termes en anglais, français, espagnol et portugais. Vous pouvez trouver des termes, des abréviations, des définitions et des exemples d’utilisation dans un large éventail de domaines spécialisés. La banque de données est un outil essentiel pour décoder les acronymes, vérifier un titre officiel, trouver un équivalent dans une autre langue et bien plus encore.

TERMIUM : la banque de données terminologiques et linguistiques du gouvernement du Canada.

TRY - Plant Trait Database (morphology, anatomy, biochemistry, physiology...)

8 Juillet 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

TRY - Plant Trait Database (morphology, anatomy, biochemistry, physiology...)

The TRY Data Portal provides the opportunity to explore the coverage of plant trait data in the TRY database, to request and to contribute data, and it provides data contributors and PIs of data requests the opportunity to manage their contributions and requests.