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Bioécologie

Comité francais de l'Union mondial pour la nature

24 Décembre 2009,

Publié par JMB

uicn.jpgCréé en 1992, le Comité français de l’UICN est le réseau des organismes et des experts de l’Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France.

Il regroupe au sein d’un partenariat original 2 ministères (écologie et affaires étrangères), 8 organismes publics et 36 organisations non gouvernementales, ainsi qu’un réseau de plus de 250 experts rassemblés au sein de commissions et de groupes de travail.

Les programmes du Comité français de l’UICN déclinent ses deux missions principales qui sont de répondre aux enjeux de la biodiversité en France et de valoriser l’expertise française à l’international.

L’Association Francaise des Ingénieurs Ecologues (AFIE)

18 Décembre 2009,

Publié par JMB

L’Association Française des Ingénieurs Ecologues est un réseau de professionnels de l’écologie appliquée au service du développement durable depuis plus de 25 ans. L’AFIE a été créée en 1979 afin de proposer un cadre professionnel au champ de l’écologie appliquée. Elle est membre du Comité français de l’UICN.

AFIE

L’AFIE a pour objectifs de :

  • promouvoir la profession d’ingénieur écologue et plus généralement le professionnalisme en environnement.
  • favoriser la prise en compte des lois de l’écologie dans l’aménagement du territoire et la gestion des milieux naturels.

Les Ingénieurs Ecologues

Généralistes de l’environnement et professionnels de l’écologie appliquée, ils ont une approche globale et systémique des questions d’environnement. De ce fait, ils inscrivent leur action dans le cadre du développement durable.

Les ingénieurs écologues exercent leur activité aussi bien dans le secteur privé (bureaux d’études, d’ingénierie et de conseil, industries, associations…) que dans le secteur public (collectivités territoriales, administration, recherche, enseignement…).

 

Quelques exemples de missions confiées à des IE :

  • Réalisation des études d’environnement et d’impact telles que le prévoit le législateur
  • Conseil et assistance en écologie
  • Expertise des écosystèmes et génie écologique
  • Gestion des questions d’environnement au sein d’une entreprise ou d’une collectivité
  • Elaboration et suivi des études et des recherches en écologie appliquée
  • Développement d’actions de formation, de communication ou de médiation en matière d’écologie
  • Participation à la mise en place et à l’évaluation de politiques de l’écologie en France et à l’étranger 

Les spécificités des Ingénieurs Ecologues de l’AFIE

Une formation supérieure en écologie : les IE de l’AFIE ont un niveau de formation minimal de cinq années d’études après le baccalauréat dans le domaine des sciences de la vie et du milieu naturel. Leur formation comprend une année au moins d’enseignement spécifique à l’écologie (Mastere ou spécialisation en école d’ingénieur).

Code de déontologie : les ingénieurs écologues de l’AFIE approuvent et respectent un code de déontologie.

La suite ici

Sur le site Internet de l'AFIE, découvrez de nombreux autres liens : droits et administrations, associations et sociétés savantes naturalistes,...

Wildlife Photographer of the Year

17 Décembre 2009,

Publié par JMB

Now in its 45th year, Wildlife Photographer of the Year Competition is an international showcase for the very best nature photography. The competition is owned by two UK institutions that pride themselves on revealing and championing the diversity of life on Earth - the Natural History Museum and BBC Wildlife Magazine.

Being accepted into this competition is something that wildlife photographers, worldwide, aspire to. Professionals win many of the prizes, but amateurs succeed, too. And that's because achieving the perfect picture is down to a mixture of skill, vision, originality, knowledge of nature and luck.

Each year thousands of entries are received and judged by a specially selected expert panel. The winners are announced at an awards ceremony that takes place each October at the Natural History Museum, London.



Cours : Dynamique des Populations et Ecologie Evolutive,...

15 Décembre 2009,

Publié par JMB

Un cours de Henk van Dijk, du Laboratoire de Génétique & Evolution des Populations Végétales, pour les étudiants en Master Environnement. Cliquez ici

Sur le site Internet du laboratoire GEPV, de nombreux autres cours dans le domaine de l'écologie générale, l'écologie évolutive, la génétique évolutive,...sont disponibles dans la rubrique "Ressources pédagogiques".

Bonne lecture !

WWF: Kathryn Fuller Fellowships

15 Décembre 2009,

Publié par JMB

wwfWWF-US is pleased to announce the availability of Kathryn Fuller Fellowships for 2010. For nearly 50 years WWF has committed to delivering science-based conservation results while incorporating the latest research and innovations into our work. As part of its commitment to advancing conservation through science, WWF established Kathryn Fuller Fellowships to support PhD students and postdoctoral researchers working on issues of exceptional importance and relevance to conservation in WWF-US priority places


This year, the Kathryn Fuller Science for Nature Fund will support doctoral and postdoctoral research in the following three areas :
- ecosystem services
- measuring and monitoring carbon stocks in forests
- climate change impacts on and adaptation of freshwater resources

Fuller Doctoral Fellows receive either $15,000 or $20,000 allocated over a period of up to 2 years to cover research expenses.

Fuller Postdoctoral Fellows receive $140,000 to cover a stipend and research expenses over a period of up to two years as well as $17,500 to cover indirect costs at the host institution over the two-year fellowship period.

Citizens of any nation may apply. Applicants for Fuller Doctoral Fellowships must be currently enrolled in a PhD program. WWF staff, directors, and their relatives as well as current Russell E. Train Fellows are ineligible to receive Fuller Fellowships.


Deadline for applications is January 31, 2010.

For more information on complete eligibility requirements, selection criteria, and how to apply, please visit the
Fuller Fellowship webpage.

Or you may send your questions to
fullerfund@wwfus.org.

Les techniques non invasives pour recenser les petits mammifères

7 Décembre 2009,

Publié par JMB

Pour recenser les petits mammifères (loutres, visons, etc.) inféodés aux milieux humides, discrets et parfois peu abondants, il existe plusieurs techniques comme l'utilisation de pièges photographiques (camera traps), de pièges à poils, de compteurs à infrarouges, etc. 
 

Ci-dessous, vous trouverez quelques références concernant ces différentes méthodes.

Assessing camera traps for surveying the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761), distribution
González-Esteban, J.1; Villate, I.2; Irizar, I.3
1: Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Carretera Donamaria, 15, 2º izq, 31740 , Santesteban, Navarra, Spain,  2: Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Carretera Donamaria, 15, 2º izq, 31740 , Santesteban, Navarra, Spain, 3: Mugertza Kalea, 3, 2º ezk, 20570 , Bergara, Gipuzkoa, Spain.
Source: European Journal of Wildlife Research, Volume 50, Number 1, March 2004 , pp. 33-36(4)
Email: abanades@wanadoo.es

 

Abstract: This study assesses the suitability of camera trapping as a method for detecting the European mink and determining its distribution in a region located in southwestern Europe. Using this technique, 98 river stretches were surveyed, resulting in the detection of 11 species of carnivores. A high photographic rate was obtained for the European mink, and we were able to get a picture of its distribution area in the year 2000. No seasonal differences were found in the efficiency of the method used. Camera trapping is an effective technique that provides quick updates of the distribution of the European mink and may be used in programs monitoring this species.


Non-intrusive monitoring of otters (Lutra lutra) using infrared technology

 

C. Garcia de Leaniz 1 , D. W. Forman 1 , S. Davies 1 & A. Thomson 2

1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wales Swansea, Swansea, UK
2 Middle Dee Project, Banchory, Kincardineshire, UK
Source: Journal of Zoology, Volume 270 Issue 4, Pages 577 - 584
Correspondence: C. Garcia de Leaniz, Email: c.garciadeleaniz@swansea.ac.uk


Abstract: Remote, non-intrusive monitoring of elusive mammals remains problematic, particularly in running waters. The utility of using submerged infrared counters for monitoring non-intrusively the activity of Eurasian otters Lutra lutra was assessed in three tributaries of the River Dee (Beltie, Cattie, Feardar; Scotland) during 2003–2004. Otters passing through the infrared counters were strongly nocturnal and displayed a bimodal diel activity pattern. Seasonal activity indices varied fourfold between tributaries and peaked during the salmonid breeding season. The median time elapsing between consecutive night visits was 2.02±0.79 days and did not differ between tributaries. The median head–body length of adult otters was estimated at 75.0±1.1 cm, whereas median upstream swimming speed was calculated at 0.97±0.01 m s−1. Minimum census estimates revealed the activity of at least two adults in the Beltie, two adults and three juveniles in the Cattie, and two adults with one juvenile in the Feardar. Our study indicates that, under suitable conditions, infrared technology can be used effectively to examine non-intrusively the activity of free-ranging otters in running waters, offering some advantages over previous, more intrusive techniques that relied on the collection of spraints, the use of radioisotopes or the tracking of marked individuals.
 

 


A Comparison of Noninvasive Techniques to Survey Carnivore Communities in Northeastern North America
MATTHEW E. GOMPPER1, ROLAND W. KAYSb, JUSTINA C. RAYc, SCOTT D. LAPOINTd, DANIEL A. BOGANe, and JASON R. CRYANf
aDepartment of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211-7240, USA. bNew York State Museum, Albany, NY 12230, USA. cWildlife Conservation Society Canada, Toronto, ON M5S 2T9, Canada. dState University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA. eDepartment of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. fNew York State Museum, Albany, NY 12230, USA
Source: Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(4):1142-1151. 2006

 

 

Abstract: Carnivores are difficult to survey due, in large part, to their relative rarity across the landscape and wariness toward humans. Several noninvasive methods may aid in overcoming these difficulties, but there has been little discussion of the relative merits and biases of these techniques. We assess the value of 5 noninvasive techniques based on results from 2 multiyear studies of carnivores (including members of Carnivora and Didelphidae) in New York forests. Two metrics were particularly valuable in assessing the species-specific value of any particular survey technique: latency to initial detection (LTD) and probability of detection (POD). We found differences in the value of techniques in detecting different species. For midsized species (raccoon [Procyon lotor], fisher [Martes pennanti], opossum [Didelphis virginiana], and domestic cat [Felis catus]), camera traps and track-plates were approximately equivalent in detection efficiency, but the potential for wariness toward the survey apparatus resulted in higher LTD for track-plates than for cameras. On the other hand, track-plates detected small carnivores (marten [M. americana] and weasels [Mustela spp.]) more often than cameras and had higher PODs for small and midsized species than did cameras. Cameras were efficient mechanisms for surveying bears (Ursus americanus; low LTD, high POD) but functioned poorly for discerning presence of coyotes (Canis latrans; high LTD, low POD). Scat surveys and snowtracking were the best methods for coyotes, which avoided camera traps and artificial tracking surfaces. Our analysis of fecal DNA revealed that trail-based fecal surveys were inefficient at detecting species other than coyotes, with the possible exception of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Genetic analyses of feces and snowtracking revealed the presence of foxes at sites where other techniques failed to discern these species, suggesting that cameras and track-plates are inefficient for surveying small canids in this region. The LTD of coyotes by camera traps was not correlated with their abundance as indexed by scat counts, but for other species this metric may offer an opportunity to assess relative abundance across sites. Snowtracking surveys were particularly robust (high POD) for detecting species active in winter and may be more effective than both cameras and track-plates where conditions are suitable. We recommend that survey efforts targeting multiple members of the carnivore community use multiple independent techniques and incorporate mechanisms to truth their relative value.

 


Using Track Plates and Remote Cameras to Detect Marten and Short-Tailed Weasels in Coastal Cedar Hemlock Forests
Garth Mowat, Corby Shurgot and Kim G. Poole
Source: Northwestern Naturalist, Vol. 81, No. 3 (2000), pp. 113-121. Published by: Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology

Abstract: We studied the distribution of American marten (Martes americana) and short-tailed weasels (Mustela erminea anguinae) on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, over 2 winters from 1996 to 1998. We tested a combination of track plates and remote cameras to detect marten and weasels in 4 broadly different habitats: early seral cut-blocks, regenerating cut-blocks, old forests, and grassy edge habitats. We measured vegetation structure at many sample sites in order to describe habitats where marten and weasels were detected. We detected similar numbers of marten in all of the low elevation forest stands sampled; fewer marten were detected in grassy edge habitats than in forested stands. Weasels were detected at sites with open forest and little structure compared to forested stands. Weasels were detected primarily in edge habitats associated with forest openings or riparian areas dominated by grass ground cover. We used rotten bait and lure, instead of fresh bait, to make sites most attractive to marten and weasels. We used 7-day checks which allowed us to trap more sites than shorter check intervals. Track plate boxes worked well for detecting marten and weasels though we suggest extending the roof and sides at both ends of the box 20 cm beyond the floor to provide greater protection from rain. Cameras were expensive, heavy, and failed to detect marten more often than track plates. We suggest that cameras be used only to identify unknown tracks or early in a study to determine appropriate methods.

 

 


Camera Traps in Animal Ecology - Methods and Analyses
O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, Ullas K. (Eds.)
2010, Approx. 200 p. ISBN: 978-4-431-99494-7 


Sites Internet :


- US Federal Highway Administration: Wildlife habitat connectivity across european highways
- Infrared counters (fishes, lutra): Vaki company
- 27th Mustelid Colloquium
- Le Plan National d'actions pour la loutre en France
- deuxième plan national de restauration du vison d'europe (Mustela lutreola); 2007-2011

Le Blog de Marine Grandgeorge !

6 Décembre 2009,

Publié par JMB

Marine Grandgeorge, étudiante au doctorat en psychologie humaine, vient de présenter mon Blog sur son site Internet. A mon tour, je vous invite à découvrir son Blog

Vous y trouverez, en particulier, des offres de stage, de doctorat, de post-doc, d'emploi,... Les sujets sont plutôt orientés en éthologie, psychologie, sciences cognitives, écologie comportementale.

Bonne visite !

Societas Europaea Mammalogica

2 Décembre 2009,

Publié par JMB

The Societas Europaea Mammalogica (SEM) was founded in 1988 at a meeting in Paris to discuss the preparation of a European Mammals Atlas. The purposes of the Society are:

  • To promote links between European mammalogists
  • To encourage the study and conservation of European mammals
  • To carry out projects on European mammals

The Atlas of European Mammals was finally published in 1999 and is now widely used as a reference work

Membership of the Society is open to professional mammalogists, students and all with an interest in the study and conservation of mammals. You can apply to join the Society by registering on this website. Being a member confers no particular benefits, but registered users can submit news items to the website and edit their own submissions.

La directive cadre européenne sur l’eau (DCE) : les bioindicateurs

1 Décembre 2009,

Publié par JMB

"Quelques outils pratiques pour la mesure des "éléments de qualité biologique" dans le cadre de la DCE.




La directive cadre européenne sur l’eau (DCE) prévoit une évaluation de la qualité écologique des eaux  basée sur plusieurs éléments de qualité biologique. Ces éléments sont définis dans l’annexe V de la directive : invertébrés benthiques, macrophytes et phytobenthos, phytoplancton et poissons. Les protocoles appliqués pour cette évaluation doivent répondre à un certain nombre de prescriptions, et être adaptés aux différentes catégories de masses d’eau (lacs, rivières, estuaires, littoral)."

Pour plus d'informations, cliquez ici