Pour recenser les petits mammifères (loutres, visons, etc.) inféodés aux milieux humides, discrets et parfois peu abondants, il existe plusieurs techniques comme l'utilisation de pièges photographiques (camera traps), de pièges à poils, de compteurs à infrarouges, etc.
Ci-dessous, vous trouverez quelques références concernant ces différentes méthodes.
Assessing camera traps for surveying the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761), distribution
González-Esteban, J.1; Villate, I.2; Irizar, I.3
1: Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Carretera Donamaria, 15, 2º izq, 31740 , Santesteban, Navarra, Spain, 2: Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Carretera Donamaria, 15, 2º izq, 31740 , Santesteban, Navarra, Spain, 3: Mugertza Kalea, 3, 2º ezk, 20570 , Bergara, Gipuzkoa, Spain.
Source: European Journal of Wildlife Research, Volume 50, Number 1, March 2004 , pp. 33-36(4)
Abstract: This study assesses the suitability of camera trapping as a method for detecting the European mink and determining its distribution in a region located in southwestern Europe. Using this technique, 98 river stretches were surveyed, resulting in the detection of 11 species of carnivores. A high photographic rate was obtained for the European mink, and we were able to get a picture of its distribution area in the year 2000. No seasonal differences were found in the efficiency of the method used. Camera trapping is an effective technique that provides quick updates of the distribution of the European mink and may be used in programs monitoring this species.
Non-intrusive monitoring of otters (Lutra lutra) using infrared technology
1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wales Swansea, Swansea, UK
2 Middle Dee Project, Banchory, Kincardineshire, UK
Source: Journal of Zoology, Volume 270 Issue 4, Pages 577 - 584
Correspondence: C. Garcia de Leaniz, Email: email@example.com
Abstract: Remote, non-intrusive monitoring of elusive mammals remains problematic, particularly in running waters. The utility of using submerged infrared counters for monitoring non-intrusively the activity of Eurasian otters Lutra lutra was assessed in three tributaries of the River Dee (Beltie, Cattie, Feardar; Scotland) during 2003–2004. Otters passing through the infrared counters were strongly nocturnal and displayed a bimodal diel activity pattern. Seasonal activity indices varied fourfold between tributaries and peaked during the salmonid breeding season. The median time elapsing between consecutive night visits was 2.02±0.79 days and did not differ between tributaries. The median head–body length of adult otters was estimated at 75.0±1.1 cm, whereas median upstream swimming speed was calculated at 0.97±0.01 m s−1. Minimum census estimates revealed the activity of at least two adults in the Beltie, two adults and three juveniles in the Cattie, and two adults with one juvenile in the Feardar. Our study indicates that, under suitable conditions, infrared technology can be used effectively to examine non-intrusively the activity of free-ranging otters in running waters, offering some advantages over previous, more intrusive techniques that relied on the collection of spraints, the use of radioisotopes or the tracking of marked individuals.
A Comparison of Noninvasive Techniques to Survey Carnivore Communities in Northeastern North America
MATTHEW E. GOMPPER1, ROLAND W. KAYSb, JUSTINA C. RAYc, SCOTT D. LAPOINTd, DANIEL A. BOGANe, and JASON R. CRYANf
aDepartment of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211-7240, USA. bNew York State Museum, Albany, NY 12230, USA. cWildlife Conservation Society Canada, Toronto, ON M5S 2T9, Canada. dState University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA. eDepartment of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. fNew York State Museum, Albany, NY 12230, USA
Source: Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(4):1142-1151. 2006
Abstract: Carnivores are difficult to survey due, in large part, to their relative rarity across the landscape and wariness toward humans. Several noninvasive methods may aid in overcoming these difficulties, but there has been little discussion of the relative merits and biases of these techniques. We assess the value of 5 noninvasive techniques based on results from 2 multiyear studies of carnivores (including members of Carnivora and Didelphidae) in New York forests. Two metrics were particularly valuable in assessing the species-specific value of any particular survey technique: latency to initial detection (LTD) and probability of detection (POD). We found differences in the value of techniques in detecting different species. For midsized species (raccoon [Procyon lotor], fisher [Martes pennanti], opossum [Didelphis virginiana], and domestic cat [Felis catus]), camera traps and track-plates were approximately equivalent in detection efficiency, but the potential for wariness toward the survey apparatus resulted in higher LTD for track-plates than for cameras. On the other hand, track-plates detected small carnivores (marten [M. americana] and weasels [Mustela spp.]) more often than cameras and had higher PODs for small and midsized species than did cameras. Cameras were efficient mechanisms for surveying bears (Ursus americanus; low LTD, high POD) but functioned poorly for discerning presence of coyotes (Canis latrans; high LTD, low POD). Scat surveys and snowtracking were the best methods for coyotes, which avoided camera traps and artificial tracking surfaces. Our analysis of fecal DNA revealed that trail-based fecal surveys were inefficient at detecting species other than coyotes, with the possible exception of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Genetic analyses of feces and snowtracking revealed the presence of foxes at sites where other techniques failed to discern these species, suggesting that cameras and track-plates are inefficient for surveying small canids in this region. The LTD of coyotes by camera traps was not correlated with their abundance as indexed by scat counts, but for other species this metric may offer an opportunity to assess relative abundance across sites. Snowtracking surveys were particularly robust (high POD) for detecting species active in winter and may be more effective than both cameras and track-plates where conditions are suitable. We recommend that survey efforts targeting multiple members of the carnivore community use multiple independent techniques and incorporate mechanisms to truth their relative value.
Using Track Plates and Remote Cameras to Detect Marten and Short-Tailed Weasels in Coastal Cedar Hemlock Forests
Garth Mowat, Corby Shurgot and Kim G. Poole
Source: Northwestern Naturalist, Vol. 81, No. 3 (2000), pp. 113-121. Published by: Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology
Abstract: We studied the distribution of American marten (Martes americana) and short-tailed weasels (Mustela erminea anguinae) on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, over 2 winters from 1996 to 1998. We tested a combination of track plates and remote cameras to detect marten and weasels in 4 broadly different habitats: early seral cut-blocks, regenerating cut-blocks, old forests, and grassy edge habitats. We measured vegetation structure at many sample sites in order to describe habitats where marten and weasels were detected. We detected similar numbers of marten in all of the low elevation forest stands sampled; fewer marten were detected in grassy edge habitats than in forested stands. Weasels were detected at sites with open forest and little structure compared to forested stands. Weasels were detected primarily in edge habitats associated with forest openings or riparian areas dominated by grass ground cover. We used rotten bait and lure, instead of fresh bait, to make sites most attractive to marten and weasels. We used 7-day checks which allowed us to trap more sites than shorter check intervals. Track plate boxes worked well for detecting marten and weasels though we suggest extending the roof and sides at both ends of the box 20 cm beyond the floor to provide greater protection from rain. Cameras were expensive, heavy, and failed to detect marten more often than track plates. We suggest that cameras be used only to identify unknown tracks or early in a study to determine appropriate methods.