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Bioécologie

Colloque "Communiquer la science par l'image"

31 Octobre 2014,

Publié par Bioécologie

La cinquième édition des colloques est consacrée à l’image. Regards croisés entre scientifiques, médias et publics.

L’objectif de cette rencontre est de réfléchir au rôle et à la place des images pour communiquer la science, sous ses différents formes et supports de diffusion, qu’elle soit photo, film, illustration, infographie, en 3D, en BD...

Avec les avancées technologiques, les images produites par la science sont aujourd’hui plus nombreuses et mieux partagées. Possédant une grande force de démonstration et de conviction, comment sont-elles ressenties par les citoyens ? Quel est leur impact, la force des images ne risque-t-elle pas d'induire parfois la cristallisation de controverses scientifiques ?

Le colloque s'adresse aux institutions de recherche, aux scientifiques, aux créateurs d'images, aux éditeurs, aux producteurs et réalisateurs de films (documentaires et fictions), aux diffuseurs, aux concepteurs d'expositions et d'attractions, aux médias et au grand public. Partage et mise en commun des pratiques, discussion autour de la conception, de la finalité, du statut et de l'éthique

Lieu :

Institut Pasteur, Centre d’Information Scientifique (CIS), Paris 15ème, France, le 07 novembre 2014

Colloque "Communiquer la science par l'image"

Drilling for an Ancient Climate Record

30 Octobre 2014,

Publié par Bioécologie

Scientists gather for a first look at a fresh sediment core, hoping that it will offer hard data linking environmental change to human evolution. For more on the history of Earth's climate and its impact on ecological systems, see the Natural Systems in Changing Climates Special Issue.

Photo slideshow here

Florida lizards evolve rapidly, within 15 years and 20 generations

29 Octobre 2014,

Publié par Bioécologie

Stuart, Y.E., T.S. Campbell, P.A. Hohenlohe, R.G. Reynolds, L.J. Revell, and J.B. Losos. 2014. Rapid evolution of a native species following invasion by a congener. Science, 346: 463-466. DOI: 10.1126/science.1257008. [link, pdf]

Native green anoles (left) have evolved better gripping feet in response to an invasion of brown anoles (right) on islands in Florida. Credit: Todd Campbell and Adam Algar.

Native green anoles (left) have evolved better gripping feet in response to an invasion of brown anoles (right) on islands in Florida. Credit: Todd Campbell and Adam Algar.

The adaptive function of melanin-based plumage coloration to trace metals

28 Octobre 2014,

Publié par Bioécologie

Please click here to read this publication

Abstract

Trace metals produced by anthropogenic activities are of major importance in urban areas and might constitute a new evolutionary force selecting for the ability to cope with their deleterious effects. Interestingly, melanin pigments are known to bind metal ions, thereby potentially sequestering them in inert body parts such as coat and feathers, and facilitating body detoxification. Thus, a more melanic plumage or coat coloration could bring a selective advantage for animals living in polluted areas. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the link between melanin-based coloration and zinc and lead concentrations in feathers of urban feral pigeons, both at capture time and after one year of captivity in standardized conditions. Results show that differently coloured pigeons had similar metal concentrations at capture time. Metal concentrations strongly decreased after one year in standardized conditions, and more melanic pigeons had higher concentrations of zinc (but not lead) in their feathers. This suggests that more melanic pigeons have a higher ability to store some metals in their feathers compared with their paler counterparts, which could explain their higher success in urbanized areas. Overall, this work suggests that trace metal pollution may exert new selective forces favouring more melanic phenotypes in polluted environments.

PhD position: Genetics of seasonal timing in the great tit

28 Octobre 2014,

Publié par Bioécologie

Within the “European Graduate School in Animal Breeding and Genetics” (EGS-ABG) a 4-year PhD position on “Genetics of seasonal timing in the great tit (Parus major)” is available, see below for a project summary.

This project is jointly hosted by Wageningen University (the Netherlands) and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden), in close collaboration with the Department of Animal Ecology of the Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW).

Please see http://www.egsabg.eu/ for further information on the graduate school and online application procedure (deadline 30.11. 2014). Please note that applicants who obtained their MSc in one of the countries hosting the project (the Netherlands, Sweden) are not eligible . For further information on the project please contact Prof. Martien Groenen (martien.groenen@wur.nl).

Project summary:

The rate at which organisms can adapt to climate change is one of the key factors determining the degree of biodiversity loss. One of the key ecological impacts of global climate change is that it has led to clear shifts in seasonal timing, a prime example of a phenotypically plastic trait in which environmental variables, in interaction with the genetic background, determine the trait value. The focus of this project will be phenotypic plasticity in the passerine bird the great tit (Parus major). The aim is to identify genomic regions involved in a number of traits including egg laying date, clutch size, weight at 15 days, tarsus and hatchability of eggs using an association study on a population of 2500 female birds measured for these traits and genotyped with 675,000 SNPs distributed evenly across the genome. Because genetic correlations between traits under selection could constrain evolutionary change, genetic correlations will be estimated between the traits measured in these birds, using actual relatedness instead of pedigree-based relatedness. Within the project you will also analyse the 4th generation of the two selection lines, currently being produced, to identify the regions under selection. The complete genome sequence of the founder animals of the selection lines will be available, which allows a detailed analysis of the underlying genes and genetic variants under selection. The project requires excellent skills in quantitative genetics and bioinformatics.