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Articles avec #actualites-news

Tchernobyl : 30 ans plus tard

25 Avril 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

Le 26 avril 1986, le réacteur n°4 de la centrale de Tchernobyl explosait, provoquant le pire accident nucléaire de l'histoire. Dans les jours qui suivirent environ 250 000 personnes furent évacuées de la zone d'un rayon de 30 kilomètres autour de la centrale. Trente ans après, cette "zone d'exclusion nucléaire" est pourtant habitée par plusieurs centaines de résidents illégaux, malgré la radioactivité qui ne disparaîtra pas avant plusieurs siècles.

A RIVER ON FIRE! Gas explodes from Australian river near fracking site

24 Avril 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

Australian Greens MP Jeremy Buckingham has set a river on fire in an attempt to prove it is being affected by fracking.

Jeremy Buckingham: "A RIVER ON FIRE! Gas explodes from Australian river near fracking site. I was shocked by force of the explosion when I tested whether gas boiling through the Condamine River, Qld was flammable. So much gas is bubbling through the river that it held a huge flame.

There has been concern that fracking and extraction of coal seam gas could cause gas to migrate through the rock. Not only is it polluting the river and air, but methane is an extremely potent heat trapping gas. Fugitive emissions from the unconventional gas industry could be a major contributor to climate change and make gas as dirty as burning coal.

Gas first started bubbling though the river shortly after the coal seam gas industry took off in the Chinchilla area. Since then the volume of gas bubbling through the river has massively increased and has spread along the river.

You can see stakes in the river bank were the Queensland Government has marked each gas seep. You can also see pipework near the river where Origin Energy has installed for monitoring the gas bubbling through the river."

Pause...

22 Mars 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

A thought for our friends, colleagues and Belgian neighbors.

Une pensée pour nos amis, collègues et voisins belges.

The “Trimates,” The Founding Mothers of Primatology

8 Mars 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

Birute Galdikas (orangutans), Jane Goodall (chimpanzees) and Dian Fossey (gorillas in particular mountain gorillas) (Read more here)

The Jane Goodall Institute, the Karisoke Research Center (founded by Fossey), and the Orangutan Foundation International (founded by Galdikas) are part of the remarkable legacy of these tireless women, whose work in understanding and protecting humanity’s closest living relatives will never be finished.

The “Trimates,” The Founding Mothers of Primatology

La déforestation menace les oiseaux à grand bec et les graines de palmier au Brésil

27 Février 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

Un article d'Emmanuel Perrin publié sur Maxisciences (8 juin 2013)

"Selon une nouvelle étude, la disparition des oiseaux à grand bec liée à la fragmentation des forêts tropicales brésiliennes a entrainé dans la région une diminution de la taille et de la vivacité des graines de palmier.

Nombreuses sont les conséquences de la déforestation. Pour les scientifiques, la prise de conscience des tenants et aboutissants d'une activité aussi dévastatrice est donc un véritable défi. Une nouvelle fois, une équipe internationale de chercheurs a mis en évidence une répercussion jusqu'à présent insoupçonnée. Selon leur nouvelle étude, la disparition des oiseaux à grands becs dans les forêts tropicales brésiliennes a entrainé au cours du dernier siècle une réduction notable des graines de palmiers.

Pour en arriver à une telle conclusion, les chercheurs ont récolté des graines sur des sites intacts de la forêt vierge brésilienne et les ont comparées avec celles des zones ayant servi dans les années 1800 aux exploitations de café et de Canne à Sucre. Au total, 9.000 graines provenant de 22 populations différentes d'Euterpe edulis ont été ramassées. Les résultats, publiés dans la revue Science (The birds and the seeds, Science, 31 mai 2013) mettent en évidence des graines nettement plus petites dans les zones de la forêt fragmentées par les plantations de sucre ou de café.

Selon les scientifiques, une telle conséquence serait directement liée à la disparition des oiseaux à grand bec et "disperseurs" de grosses graines, comme le toucan ou de grands cotingas. Ces animaux sont en effet incapables de nicher dans des territoires fragmentés par les plantations. Des analyses génétiques supplémentaires ont permis de déterminer le temps de réduction de la taille des graines de palmier après la perturbation initiale. Celui-ci ne serait que d'une centaine d'année.

Un changement aux lourdes conséquences

Ce bouleversement de l'écosystème peut avoir des effets désastreux. "Les petites graines sont plus vulnérables à la dessiccation et ne pourront (...)

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Un toucan toco (Ramphastos toco) - Photo de Lindolfo Souto (http://500px.com/LindolfoSouto)

Un toucan toco (Ramphastos toco) - Photo de Lindolfo Souto (http://500px.com/LindolfoSouto)

32nd International Conference on Environmental Geochemistry and Health

4 Février 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

32nd International Conference on Environmental Geochemistry and Health
32nd International Conference on Environmental Geochemistry and Health

Organized by the Laboratoire G-Time of ULB (Laboratoire Geochemistry - Tracing by Isotopes, Elements and Minerals) this annual conference of the Society for Environmental Geochemistry and Health provides a forum for international scientists, consultants, regulatory authorities and other practitioners (public health / environmental health) with an interest in the links between environment and health and working in the broad area of environmental geochemistry.

Abstract submission deadline: March 2nd, 2016

For the 32nd SEGH there are three core themes (Dust and Aerosol; Isotopes and Speciation; Geochemistry and Health) and three special sessions (SpatioTemporal Trends of Metal Contaminants in the Atmosphere; Nanoparticles in the Environment: Fate and Effects; Geochemistry and Biomedical Issues).

Bioecologie put a spotlight on this Special Session:

Special Session 2 – Nanoparticles in the Environment: Fate and Effects

Special Session chaired by Camille Larue1,2, Laure Giamberini3,Eric Pinelli1,2, Laury Gauthier1,2

1 Université de Toulouse; INP, UPS; EcoLab (Laboratoire d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement); ENSAT, France

2 CNRS; EcoLab; France

3Université de Lorraine, LIEC (Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux), France

Nanoparticles, both from natural and anthropogenic origins, have always existed in our environment. They are present in every compartments, from ultrafine atmospheric particles to nanoparticles present in the colloidal fraction of soils and water. Recent decades have seen the emergence of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) with new properties used in various applications (medicine, electronics, computers, automotive industry, and in more than 1800 consumer products including food) raising concerns about their fate in the environment due to enhanced surface reactivity. If no strict regulations are currently effective concerning NPs, several OECD or FDA recommendations are already available for industry and toxicological testing. It has also been underlined the necessity to develop knowledge in analysis and characterization of NPs in physical and biological matrixes, and their eco(toxicity). This has led to a number of questions as their speciation, their interaction with other contaminants or their effects associated with human health and environmental risks. This session aims at being a discussion forum centered on: (i) NP physico-chemical characterization, (ii) their interactions with living organisms and (iii) their potential environmental and health issues. Young researchers are encouraged to present their work.


Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study

3 Février 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

By Janie F. Shelton, Estella M. Geraghty, Daniel J. Tancredi, Lora D. Delwiche, Rebecca J. Schmidt, Beate Ritz, Robin L. Hansen, and Irva Hertz-Picciotto. June 2014.

  • Background: Gestational exposure to several common agricultural pesticides can induce developmental neurotoxicity in humans, and has been associated with developmental delay and autism.

    Objectives: We evaluated whether residential proximity to agricultural pesticides during pregnancy is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or developmental delay (DD) in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment (CHARGE) study.

    Methods: The CHARGE study is a population-based case–control study of ASD, DD, and typical development. For 970 participants, commercial pesticide application data from the California Pesticide Use Report (1997–2008) were linked to the addresses during pregnancy. Pounds of active ingredient applied for organophophates, organochlorines, pyrethroids, and carbamates were aggregated within 1.25-km, 1.5-km, and 1.75-km buffer distances from the home. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of exposure comparing confirmed cases of ASD (n = 486) or DD (n = 168) with typically developing referents (n = 316).

    Results: Approximately one-third of CHARGE study mothers lived, during pregnancy, within 1.5 km (just under 1 mile) of an agricultural pesticide application. Proximity to organophosphates at some point during gestation was associated with a 60% increased risk for ASD, higher for third-trimester exposures (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6), and second-trimester chlorpyrifos applications (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.4). Children of mothers residing near pyrethroid insecticide applications just before conception or during third trimester were at greater risk for both ASD and DD, with ORs ranging from 1.7 to 2.3. Risk for DD was increased in those near carbamate applications, but no specific vulnerable period was identified.

    Conclusions: This study of ASD strengthens the evidence linking neurodevelopmental disorders with gestational pesticide exposures, particularly organophosphates, and provides novel results of ASD and DD associations with, respectively, pyrethroids and carbamates.

More here

Why do some fish thrive in oil-polluted water?

3 Février 2016,

Publié par Bioécologie

Scientists thought guppies in Northern Trinidad could be a rare example of adaptation to crude oil pollution. But they found something else.

By Melody Enguix (26 JAN 2016):

When scientists from McGill University learned that some fish were proliferating in rivers and ponds polluted by oil extraction in Southern Trinidad, it caught their attention. They thought they had found a rare example of a species able to adapt to crude oil pollution.

At a time when humans are imposing an unprecedented burden on the world's ecosystems, studying how organisms can tolerate pollutants is crucial to understanding the impact of human activities – and to helping to mitigate it in the future.

Led by Dr. Gregor Rolshausen, then a postdoctoral researcher at McGill working with Prof. Andrew Hendry, the team went to study the guppy fish living in polluted areas, comparing their morphology and genetic makeup to those of similar guppies from non-polluted parts of Trinidad.

More here