The OECD launched a new programme on the development of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOP) in 2012. An AOP is an analytical construct that describes a sequential chain of causally linked events at different levels of biological organisation that lead to an adverse health or ecotoxicological effect (see figure below). AOPs are the central element of a toxicological knowledge framework being built to support chemical risk assessment based on mechanistic reasoning.
Editorial: Nature Ecology & Evolution
"Ecological research projects that span decades provide unprecedented insight into the functioning and dynamics of populations, communities and ecosystems. We should treasure and protect them.
Ecological processes rarely respect the time frames imposed by short-term projects and grants. In a period of unparalleled human-induced global change, the rapid alterations we currently see to natural communities and ecosystems may not be indicative of change in the medium-to-long term. Without high-quality baseline data from the recent past, predicting future responses is like betting on a horse race without first examining the form guide.
This is why the long-term datasets that we already have are so valuable, and why they should continue. In this issue, Gooseff et al. analyse 25 years of data from the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) project in Antarctica, and show that an influx of glacial meltwater during a single unusually warm summer was enough to elicit large-scale changes to the biological communities of this fragile, extreme ecosystem. In an accompanying News and Views article, Dana Bergstrom praises the investment by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) in this project, and the 26 other LTER sites in the United States."
Tilman, D., M. Clark, et al. (2017). Nature 546(7656): 73-81.
Tens of thousands of species are threatened with extinction as a result of human activities. Here we explore how the extinction risks of terrestrial mammals and birds might change in the next 50 years. Future population growth and economic development are forecasted to impose unprecedented levels of extinction risk on many more species worldwide, especially the large mammals of tropical Africa, Asia and South America. Yet these threats are not inevitable. Proactive international efforts to increase crop yields, minimize land clearing and habitat fragmentation, and protect natural lands could increase food security in developing nations and preserve much of Earth's remaining biodiversity.
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The Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System, or CADDIS, is a website developed to help scientists and engineers in the Regions, States, and Tribes conduct causal assessments in aquatic systems. It is organized into five volumes.
MOSAIC is a web interface dedicated to the mathematical and statistical modelling of bioassay data. Bioassays are conducted in ecotoxicology to measure acute or chronic effects of potentially toxic substances on reproduction, growth and/or survival of living organisms.
MOSAIC is a turnkey decision-making tool for ecotoxicologists and regulators. Without wasting time on extensive mathematical and statistical technicalities, users are given advanced and innovative methods for a valuable quantitative environmental risk assessment.
MOSAIC is developed within the Biometry and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory (UMR CNRS 5558) of University Lyon 1.